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卢浮宫的油画  

2010-12-15 21:17:31|  分类: 欧洲 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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卢浮宫油画的数量和质量恐怕不是我这个门外汉所能评价的,我能做的事就是把我拍下来的那些画和在卢浮宫官方网上找到的相应介绍搬来与这些画放在一起,让我自己也让各位可以大体领略一下。拍的时候,因为自己这方面知识的欠缺,加上时间的限制只能是拍到什么是什么了,自然无法反映出那里油画的概貌和品质,也只能如此了。

卢浮宫官方网站上也有中文页面,但我发现所介绍的东东太有限,只好用英文页面里找到的相关说明和介绍,关系到英语和艺术的双重困难,我只能对号入座地把这些英文的说明原样搬到这里,我能尽的最大努力是不要搬错,如果有哪位发现有错,请不吝指教,除了我能纠正错误有所学习外,更重要的是不要误导了大家。谢谢了。

相关网址请见卢浮宫油画

油画介绍


Paintings
The Department of Paintings reflects the encyclopedic scope of the Louvre, encompassing every European school from the 13th century to 1848. The collection is overseen by twelve curators, who are among the most renowned experts in their field.


History of the Collection

The Louvre's collection of paintings dates back to the reign of Francis I of France, who sought to create a gallery of art in his ch?teau at Fontainebleau rivaling those of the great Italian palaces. He acquired masterpieces by leading Italian masters (Michelangelo, Raphael) and invited Italian artists to his court (Leonardo da Vinci, Rosso, and Primaticcio). The French royal collections grew steadily as successive sovereigns made acquisitions reflecting the tastes and fashions of their time—Louis XIV's purchase of the collections of the banker Jabach is a prime example. Louis XIV also expanded the collection of Italian paintings. The first Spanish paintings (by Murillo) and a series of French works (Le Sueur) were acquired during the reign of Louis XVI. Works from the Northern schools appeared first during the 17th century and, above all, the 18th.

In 1793, these works formed the core collection of the Muséum Central des Arts, opened within the Louvre after the Revolution. Throughout the 19th century, confiscated French aristocratic collections and the spoils of the Napoleonic conquests brought important new acquisitions. Other works were purchased from individuals (Giampietro Campana) or were acquired through the Paris Salons and donations (the collection of Dr. La Caze in 1869).

With the opening of the Musée d'Orsay in 1986, the collection was split up, with works painted after the 1848 Revolution (including pictures by Courbet and the Impressionists) transferred from the Louvre to the newly renovated Gare d'Orsay.

 

下面展示的作品是按照我能找到的资料先后排列的,既不是原来在卢浮宫的排列次序,更没有什么其他意义

 

法国油画

 

The Raft of the Medusa

卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 

 The Raft of the Medusa—a major work in French 19th-century painting—is generally regarded as an icon of Romanticism. It depicts an event whose human and political aspects greatly interested Géricault: the wreck of a French frigate off the coast of Senegal in 1816, with over 150 soldiers on board. The painter researched the story in detail and made numerous sketches before deciding on his definitive composition, which illustrates the hope of rescue.

Description

A contemporary event
Géricault drew his inspiration from the account of two survivors of the Medusa—a French Royal Navy frigate that set sail in 1816 to colonize Senegal. It was captained by an officer of the Ancien Régime who had not sailed for over twenty years and who ran the ship aground on a sandbank. Due to the shortage of lifeboats, those who were left behind had to build a raft for 150 souls—a construction that drifted away on a bloody 13-day odyssey that was to save only 10 lives. The disaster of the shipwreck was made worse by the brutality and cannibalism that ensued. Géricault decided to represent the vain hope of the shipwrecked sailors: the rescue boat is visible on the horizon—but sails away without seeing them. The whole composition is oriented toward this hope in a rightward ascent culminating in a black figure, the figurehead of the boat. The painting stands as a synthetic view of human life abandoned to its fate.

for more details

 

July 28: Liberty Leading the People

卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

 

The Paris uprising of July 27, 28, and 29, 1830, known as the Trois Glorieuses ("Three Glorious Days"), was initiated by the liberal republicans for violation of the Constitution by the Second Restoration government. Charles X, the last Bourbon king of France, was overthrown and replaced by Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans. Delacroix, who witnessed the uprising, perceived it as a modern subject for a painting; the resulting work reflects the same romantic fervor he had applied to Massacre at Chios, a painting inspired by the Greek war of independence.

for more details

 

下面这幅确实篇幅太大,我只能用三个局部来表现。

The Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon and the Coronation of Empress Joséphine on December 2, 1804

Jacques Louis DAVID (Paris, 1748 - Brussels, 1825)
The Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon and the Coronation of Empress Joséphine on December 2, 1804
1806-1807
INV. 3699
Paintings


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卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

 
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卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 
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卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

 

 Jacques Louis David was commissioned by Napoleon I to paint this huge canvas which depicts the splendor of the emperor’s Coronation while conveying its political and symbolic message. The painter himself was present at the ceremony, and once back in his studio portrayed the colorful congregation with realism, combining accuracy with artistry while also complying with the Emperor’s instructions. He thus met the challenge of producing a monumental work that would glorify the event and occupy a unique place in the history of painting.

for more details

 

Oedipus Explaining the Enigma of the Sphinx

卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 
Oedipus, a character from Greek mythology, is answering the riddle asked by the fabulous monster, the Sphinx. The picture was initially a figure study that made up one of Ingres's "dispatches from Rome." Then, almost twenty years later, Ingres enlarged it to make a history painting and in so doing toned down the archaism of the earlier canvas. However, Oedipus himself remains a figure of outstanding formal harmony.
 

 

The Intervention of the Sabine Women

卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

 After the abduction of the Sabine women by the neighboring Romans, the Sabines attempted to get them back - David depicts this episode here. The Sabine women are intervening to stop the bloodshed. Hersilia is throwing herself between her husband, the king of Rome, and her father, the king of the Sabines. David is using the subject to advocate the reconciliation of the French people after the Revolution. His increasingly simple style is inspired by Ancient Greece. 
 

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卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

 

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卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

 

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卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

 

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卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

 

Heroines
David's painting depicts a legendary episode from Rome's beginnings in the 8th century BC. After the Sabine women had been abducted by the neighboring Romans (the scene Poussin depicted in his masterpiece The Rape of the Sabine Women, Louvre), the Sabines attempted to get them back. David shows the Sabine women intervening to stop the battle raging beneath the ramparts of the Capitol in Rome. The painting is a masterful summary of the whole episode. Hersilia is leaping between her father Tatius, the king of the Sabines, on the left, and her husband Romulus, the king of Rome, on the right. A woman is pointing at her children; another has thrown herself at a warrior's feet. The picture also evokes the happy consequences of their intervention. The horseman on the right is putting his sword back into its sheath while, further away, hands and helmets are raised in gestures of peace. Unlike in David's previous paintings (The Oath of the Horatii, Brutus, Louvre), women play the crucial role here.

for more details


Madame Récamier

Juliette Récamier, the wife of a Parisian banker, was one of the most famous socialites of her time. This portrait, showing her dressed in the "antique style" and surrounded by Pompeian furniture in an otherwise bare picture space, was extremely avant-garde for 1800. Exactly why it was never finished is unclear, but its state enables one to study David's technique before his vibrant preliminary brushwork and background rubbings were "glazed over" with translucent colors.

 

卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

An ideal of feminine elegance
Madame Récamier, gracefully reclined on a meridienne with her head turned towards the viewer, is dressed in a white antique-style sleeveless dress and is barefoot. The room is empty except for the antique-style sofa, stool and candelabra. She is seen from some distance, so her face is quite small, but this is less a portrait of a person than of an ideal of feminine elegance. Madame Récamier (1777-1849), although then only twenty-three, was already one of the most admired women of her time. The daughter of a notary, she epitomized the social ascension of the new post-revolutionary elite. Her husband, older than her, had become one of the principal financial backers of the First Consul, Napoleon Bonaparte. In their mansion, restored by the architect Percier and furnished by the cabinetmaker Jacob, the couple entertained numerous writers, some of whom - like Benjamin Constant or Chateaubriand - fell passionately in love with Madame Récamier.

 

The esthetic of the unfinished
One of the work's innovative aspects is its horizontal format, unusual for a portrait, and habitually reserved for history paintings. The bare space around the figure emphasizes the elegant arabesque of Madame Récamier's reclined body. Her antique pose, the bare décor and light dress all epitomize neoclassical ideals. The clear harmony of the ensemble, due to Juliette Récamier's white dress, is brightened up by the warm hues of the furniture. Only the model's head is nearly finished, and David has not yet added highlights to the impasto of her dress. The accessories, walls and floor are merely sketched in with vibrant brushstrokes, with the white undercoat still showing through in places. The canvas' unfinished state gives the picture a mysterious, poetic appearance doubtless very different to the finished portrait David had in mind. After the minutely detailed portraits he painted during the Ancien Régime, several of David's portraits after the Revolution have unfinished backgrounds (Madame Trudaine, Musée du Louvre).

 

for more details

 

The Sleep of Endymion

Endymion the shepherd, a man of ideal beauty, is being visited at night by the goddess Diana in the form of a moonbeam. Her passage through the foliage is facilitated by Zephyr. In this early work, painted in Rome in 1791, Girodet, a pupil of David, demarcated himself from his master and foreshadowed romanticism. The idealized nude is antique in inspiration but the moonlight and the mysterious, dreamlike atmosphere are hallmarks of an emerging sensibility.

卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

 

Sleeping beauty
The shepherd Endymion, the most beautful mortal according to mythology, is sleeping naked beneath a plane tree. Juno, whom he had offended, put him to sleep for thirty years, during which he retained his youthfulness. The chaste Diana has succumbed to his perfect beauty and visits him nightly. The goddess, who is associated with the moon, manifests herself here in the form of a moonbeam, which caresses Endymion's face and torso. Zephyr facilitates the Moon's passage by pulling back the branches of a laurel tree.

for more details

 


The Entombment of Atala
Chactas the Indian and Father Aubry are burying Atala, heroine of Chateaubriand's novel, published in 1801. Everything about this funerary elogy - the Christian subject, the exotic setting, intense emotions - must have appealed to those who, on the fringes of David's rigor, remained attached to the sacred, to nature and sentiment.

卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

 

A young woman torn between love and religion
In the sunset, in a cave, the old hermit, Father Aubry, is supporting the corpse of the half-caste Atala. Chactas the Indian, stricken with grief, clings passionately to the young woman's knees. Atala, torn between her love for Chactas and the vow she took to remain a virgin and a Christian, committed suicide. With a crucifix clutched in her hand and the drapery of her dress clinging to her bust, she is both pure and sensual. After their all-night vigil, the two men will bury her in the cave. A verse from the Book of Job is carved on the cave wall: "When it is yet in flower, and is not plucked with the hand, it withereth before all herbs." Girodet drew his subject from Chateaubriand's Atala, or the Loves of Two Savages in the Wilderness (1801), set in America in the 17th century. This novel by the first French romantic novelist was published in his hugely popular The Genius of Christianity. The book celebrated Catholicism at the time when Bonaparte signed the Concordat with the Church. The exoticism, the defense of the innocence of primitive peoples and the religious sentiment that characterized the novel are all transposed into the picture. Girodet has not merely illustrated a single scene from Chateaubriand's novel, he has synthesized several passages. He has also forsaken the antique subjects dear to his master, David, for new subject matter: for Girodet, unlike David, painting no longer has a moral or political function.

for more details

 


Napoleon Bonaparte Visiting the Plague-Stricken in Jaffa
The painter Antoine-Jean Gros depicts the courage of General Bonaparte visiting plague-stricken soldiers in Jaffa, Syria, in 1799. Napoleon is touching one of the plague victims, as Christ did a leper. This huge canvas, hugely acclaimed at the 1804 Salon, was the first masterpiece of Napoleonic painting. Although the heroic nudes recall the work of Gros's master David, the warm colors, chiaroscuro, and oriental decor foreshadow Romantic painting.

Antoine-Jean Gros (Paris, 1771-Meudon, 1835)
Napoleon Bonaparte Visiting the Plague-Stricken in Jaffa
1804
INV. 5064



卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

 

The courage of the general-in-chief
The picture depicts General Bonaparte visiting plague-stricken French troops in the courtyard of a Jaffa mosque being used as a military hospital. The scene took place in March 1799 during the Syrian campaign. Bonaparte, in a shaft of daylight - ignoring the doctor trying to dissuade him - touches a sore on one of the plague victims with his bare hand. One of the officers watching has a handkerchief over his mouth. On the left, two Arabs are handing out bread to the sick. On the right, a blind soldier is trying to approach the general-in-chief. In the foreground, in the shadows, the dying men are too weak to turn towards their leader. The painter is implying that Bonaparte's virtue and courage justify the horrors of war. Gros has given him the luminous aura and gestures of Christ healing the lepers in religious paintings.

 

for more details


 

 

下面开始是意大利油画


The Wedding Feast at Cana
In 1553, Veronese was summoned to Venice where he gave free rein to his decorative talent in vast canvases that blended masterful composition, splendid contemporary costumes, and luminous colors. The Wedding Feast at Cana graced the refectory designed by Palladio for the Benedictine monastery on the Venetian island of San Giorgio Maggiore. With masterly freedom of interpretation, Veronese transposed the biblical episode to the sumptuous setting of a Venetian wedding.

 Paolo CALIARI, dit V?RON?SE - Vérone, 1528 - Venise, 1588
Les Noces de Cana
1563
Inv. 142
Paintings

 

局部1

卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

 
A biblical scene within a Venetian banquet
In Cana, Galilee, Christ is invited to a wedding feast during which he performs his first miracle. At the end of the banquet, when the wine is running low, he asks the servants to fill the stone jars with water and then offer them to the master of the house, who finds that the water has been turned to wine. This episode, told by the Apostle John, is a precursor of the Eucharist. The bride and groom are seated at the left end of the table, leaving the center place to the figure of Christ. He is surrounded by the Virgin, his disciples, clerks, princes, Venetian noblemen, Orientals in turbans, several servants, and the populace. Some figures are dressed in traditional antique costumes, while others—the women in particular—wear sumptuous coiffures and adornments.
Veronese depicts, with apparent ease, no less than 130 feast-goers, mixing biblical figures with men and women of the period. The latter are not really identifiable, although according to an 18th-century legend, the artist himself is depicted in white with a viola da gamba next to Titian and Bassano, all of whom contribute to the musical entertainment. The bearded master of ceremonies could be Aretino, whom Veronese greatly admired. Several dogs, birds, a parakeet, and a cat frolic amidst the crowd.
  
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卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
  
Paolo CALIARI, dit V?RON?SE - Vérone, 1528 - Venise, 1588
Les Noces de Cana
1563
 R.M.N.
 
 
 

Woman with a Mirror
 
Tiziano VECELLIO, known as TITIAN (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Woman with a Mirror
1512-15
INV. 755
Paintings'
 
 classical composition
Titian has pictured this sensuous young Venetian woman daydreaming at her toilet, holding her rope of hair in one hand and a perfume bottle in the other. She is standing, face-on, and is wearing a green dress with shoulder straps and a loose pleated white blouse which is open, revealing her left shoulder. A bearded man in a red doublet is holding two mirrors for her, one in front and the other behind. The painting is tightly focused on the two figures, which fill the entire space. The classical layout is particularly clear thanks to the harmonious way the forms echo each other. For example, the young woman's oval face and the round mirror echo the curving lines of her unclothed arm, right sleeve, plump shoulders, and generous décolleté.
 
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卢浮宫的油画 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 
A hymn to the beauty of Venetian women
While in this work Titian is still close to his master Giorgione in the use of the mirror and the trompe-l'oeil shelf the woman's hand is resting on, he is already distancing himself from the master in his use of a rich palette of bright colors and in the subtle play of light and shade, particularly the red garment worn by the man standing in the shadows. The work, painted while Titian was still a young man, reveals his interest in painting female portraits - he produced several such between 1510 and 1520. The young woman is leaning her head slightly to one side, and this, together with her blue eyes, pale complexion, bare shoulders, and loose, wavy, blonde hair, make her an idealized representation of Venetian beauties of the early 16th century. This fashionable theme also inspired a number of other artists, including Palma, Bordoni, and Savoldo. 
 
Technical information

Tiziano VECELLIO, known as TITIAN (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Woman with a Mirror
1512-15
Oil on canvas
H. 99 cm; W. 76 cm
Louis XIV Collection
INV. 755
Paintings


 

 
 

 


 
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