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卢浮宫古希腊雕塑  

2010-11-03 09:16:51|  分类: 欧洲 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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古希腊的艺术家们主要以人体外形为灵感,创造了以塑造人体为中心的艺术形式,并力图以最好的方式展现它。在希腊,所有以人体为题材进行创作的艺术品都是力求完美的。竞争意识曾是希腊社会赖以发展的主要动力,推动了一代又一代的古希腊艺术家们不断精益求精。因此,在不到七百年的时间里,人体雕塑从以简单图形为表现手法的几何艺术,已经完全进化到美轮美奂的《米洛的维纳斯》(Vénus de Milo)雕像,及《波尔格塞的斗士》(Guerrier Borghèse)的高度!同样,在公元前一千年这段时期内,古希腊文明奠定了往后西方所有艺术创作的发展基础。沿着这条按年代划分的游览路线,您将穿越古希腊艺术的各个重要时期:几何时代、东方化时代、古风时代、古典时代,最后到达希腊化时代;所选择的展品将使您能够了解各个时期的主要艺术特征。其中,特别值得关注几件希腊雕塑的杰出代表作,它们为后来数百年中的西方艺术家提供了灵感的源泉。

 

希腊化时代的杰作

这尊雕像是希腊化时期的原作,《萨莫色雷斯岛的胜利女神》像(Victoire de Samothrace)原本矗立于地处爱琴海东北部的希腊小岛萨莫色雷斯上的万神庙里。雕像描绘了被古希腊人称为尼凯(Nike)的胜利女神,昂首站立在战船船首,宣布战争的胜利。根据一些风格鲜明的雕刻细节,研究学者认为这尊雕像是罗迪安人雕刻的,为感谢天神赐予这场约在公元前190年的海战胜利而献给众神的祭品。

《萨莫色雷斯岛的胜利女神》雕像是希腊化时代雕刻艺术的杰作之一。这尊雕像由双翼和左腿出斜线,轮廓构造呈现倾斜的姿态。雕塑家展示出衣裙褶裥处理的精湛技艺:宽大的长裙时而顺滑地紧贴于肌肤,如真实般自然流动,时而迎风飘扬。女性的裸体在衣衫的覆盖下呼之欲出,如同其它公元前五世纪末的作品一样,采用的《沾湿的衣褶》之雕刻技法令雕像栩栩如生。 详情请见拙作《巴黎卢浮宫三宝》中的相关叙述。

卢浮宫古希腊雕塑 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

 

 

希腊化时代(公元前323至公元前31年)是古希腊历史上最后一段辉煌时期。这段时期始于征服古希腊的亚历山大大帝驾崩之际。亚历山大大帝是位于希腊北部的马其顿王国的国王,是历史上最有名的人物之一。他死后留下了一个庞大的帝国,随后由于各派利益相左而分裂成不同的王国。直至公元前二世纪,希腊艺术家丧失了政治上的独立而成为罗马帝国的臣民。为了取悦古典主义艺术的爱好者——古罗马人的欢心,前者逐渐抛弃了艺术的创新。


《米洛的维纳斯》(Vénus de Milo),更确切地说,是《米洛的阿弗洛狄忒》(Aphrodite de Mélos)(米洛岛是1820年雕像被发现的小岛),是古希腊最后一批伟大艺术作品的原型之一。她是爱与美之女神,被希腊人称为阿弗洛狄忒,被古罗马人称为维纳斯。雕像大约于公元前100年左右创作而成,是新古典主义的代表作,它完美融合了古典主义时期典型的沉着淡定的脸部表情以及希腊化时代写实风格的裸体,完全符合古罗马人的审美观。《米洛的维纳斯》原作绘有多种颜色,并缀以首饰。 详情请见拙作《巴黎卢浮宫三宝》中的相关叙述。

卢浮宫古希腊雕塑 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客

 

 

 《海尔梅斯整理鞋履》(Hermès à la sandale)之雕像


在卡娅第德柱大厅展出的是在古罗马时期,根据希腊化时代古希腊雕塑原型仿制而成的作品,而雕塑原作已无迹可寻。
海尔梅斯神作为向诸神报信的使者,其扎鞋带的雕塑是利西波斯的代表作。但请注意:他的头部来自于仿制同一作品的另一尊复制品,与他的身体相比,比例显然太小,雕像大腿下方被不合时宜地放置了一截树干,这截树干是古罗马艺术家将青铜制的利西波斯原作复制到大理石上时添加上去的。利西波斯在作品中加长了伯里刻雷托的人体规范比例“佳能”,身体各部分和肌肉都显得更加纤细。

 

卢浮宫古希腊雕塑 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 
 
 
《受刑的马西亚斯》(le Supplice de Marsyas)
 
希腊化时代创作的艺术品呈现崭新之貌,并具有相当大的影响力。位于小亚细亚(今土耳其)的帕加马古城里的雕塑以刻画成群结队的战士们悲怆痛苦的神情及阵亡的姿态为主。浮肿的肌肉、精心描绘的异族人脸部轮廓以及伤口流出的殷殷流血都是这些雕塑的创新之处。
体现了这一创新的震撼人心的典范就是这尊森林之神马西亚斯(Marsyas:希腊神话中生着羊角及羊蹄的半人半兽神)雕像,他竟然敢于向被尊为太阳神与艺术之神的天神阿波罗发起挑战,比试谁的奏乐技巧更胜一筹,落败后被判将身上的皮活生生地剥去,雕塑描绘的正是他被悬吊在松树上,等待接受惩罚的情景。该作品避开了古典主义雕塑家所注重的雕像的重心问题,转而研究男性躯体的外形塑造。光影的明暗交替为这尊肌肉紧绷的雕塑增添了一丝悲伤的情绪。甚至有考证说这尊雕像对西方艺术家创作的十字架上的耶稣受难像产生了一定的影响。森林之神看着准备向其施刑的刽子手,痛苦万分的脸部表情被凹陷部分的阴影衬托得惟妙惟肖。
 
卢浮宫古希腊雕塑 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 
 
 
《沉睡的海尔玛弗狄忒》

海尔玛弗狄忒(Hermaphrodite)是海尔梅斯与阿弗洛狄忒的儿子。美少年海尔玛弗狄忒拒绝了水仙子萨拉玛西斯(Salmacis)的仰慕和追求,水仙子为了能与他永远在一起,遂要求主神宙斯将他们的身体合二为一。从此海尔玛弗狄忒成为雌雄同体。我们在这里看到的古罗马复制品,古希腊原作是于希腊化时代雕刻而成的。这具女子的躯体显得如此柔弱无力,但参观者绕雕塑走一圈,就会发现其男性生殖器清晰可见,其造成的夸张效果令人惊讶不已。
 
卢浮宫古希腊雕塑 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 
 
描绘优雅体态的身体曲线、精心雕刻的脸庞及身体裸露部分都是普拉克西特利斯作品的真实写照,但其对比手法(正面/反面,女性/男性,睡姿/头向侧卧的相互对照)仍展现了希腊化时代反差强烈且怪诞的风格。这件作品所展现的是性感的单纯表达手法,还是阐述了关于爱情本质的哲学理念呢?这个时期的艺术家们对寓意丰富的题材甚感兴趣,但这些独特的题材在今天却让人难以理解。
 
卢浮宫古希腊雕塑 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 
 
下面暂时用英文,没有找到中文的。
 
Aphrodite of the “Capitoline” type
Roman, Imperial (2nd century AD)
Provenance: Rome
Marble
H. 1.80 m
This figure of “Aphrodite”, the most famous ancient copy of which is in the Capitoline Museum in Rome, derives from the “Aphrodite of Cnidus” created by Praxiteles in the 4th century BC. The lost Greek statue from Asia Minor on which the “Capitoline Venus” is thought to be based probably dated from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and modified the Praxitelian tradition by a more voluptuous treatment of the flesh and by the gesture of modesty with which the goddess covers herself with both hands when surprised while bathing.
The Eros and the dolphin were probably added by the copyist.
 
卢浮宫古希腊雕塑 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 
 
 
Dancing satyr of the “Invitation to the dance” group
Roman, Imperial (1st–2nd century AD)
Provenance: discovered in Rome in 1630
Marble
H. 1.43 m
This satyr is a Roman copy of a lost group dating from the 2nd century BC, probably in bronze, known to us both from coins from the 2nd-century AD from Cyzicus (an ancient town of Asia Minor, in present-day Turkey) and from many other copies (see bust Ma 528).
The dancing satyr was apparently inviting a nymph seated opposite him to join in the fun. Comparing the Louvre figure with the best-preserved copies allows us to reconstruct the positions of the arms, which have been restored. The satyr was beating time by clicking his fingers and striking a kind of castanets called a kropezion with his right foot.
卢浮宫古希腊雕塑 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 
 
 
 
Silenus carrying Dionysus (Bacchus), called “Faun with a child”
Roman, Imperial (1st–3rd century AD)
Provenance: discovered in the 16th century on the site of the gardens of Sallust in Rome (Italy)
Marble
H. 1.90 m
According to legend, Silenus was instructed by Zeus to take his illegitimate son Dionysus out of reach of the wrath of Hera and entrust her to the Nymphs.
The Louvre statue, the subject of which is known from other antique copies, may be a replica of a lost bronze original created by the Greek sculptor Lysippus in the 4th century BC. Several of the latter’s stylistic innovations can be observed: the slender body, the off-balance pose and the range of views afforded by the depth of space occupied by the figure.
Pliny the Elder, writing in the 1st century AD, mentions a satyr by Lysippus in Athens, but gives no description of it (Natural History XXXIV, 64).
 
卢浮宫古希腊雕塑 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 
 
 
 
Portrait of the philosopher Metrodoros back to back with one of his master Epicurus
Roman, Imperial (second half of 2nd century AD?)
Provenance: discovered in Rome
Pentelic marble
H. 61.5 cm
The two figures can be identified as Metrodorus (330–277 BC) and Epicurus (341–270 BC) thanks to a double portrait in the Capitoline Museum in Rome (Inv. 52) inscribed with the names of the two leading philosophers of the Epicurean school.
The Louvre group derives from seated figures created in the first half of the 3rd century BC, probably in bronze.
Hermaic pillars or herms (boundary stones mounted with a bust of Hermes, the god of crossorads) were extremely common in the Roman world. Followers of Epicurianism honoured the memory of the school’s founder and of his favourite disciple at Icades, festivals held on the twentieth day of each month, as mentioned by Diogenes Laertius in the 3rd century AD.
 
卢浮宫古希腊雕塑 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 
 
 
 
Bust of a satyr, called the “Faun of Vienne”
Roman, Imperial (1st–2nd century AD)
Provenance: discovered in 1820 in Vienne, Isère (France)
Marble
H. 38 cm
The satyr, a companion of the god Dionysus, is recognizable by his pointed ears and the small horns on his brow.
Only the bust of what was originally a full-length statue survives. The work is a Roman copy (see Ma 395 in the same room) of a statue of the “Invitation to the Dance” group in which a satyr-musician appears to be inviting a nymph seated on a rock to dance.
The original group, today lost but known to us from images on coins, may date from the 2nd century BC. The Louvre figure’s anecdotal and picturesque character is typical of the “rococo” trend in Hellenistic art. This type of satyr figure, sometimes shown alone, was popular with well-to-do Romans as a garden decoration.
 
卢浮宫古希腊雕塑 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 
 
 
 
 
 Artemis with a doe, called the “Diana of Versailles”
Roman, Imperial (1st–2nd century AD)
Provenance: Italy (Nemi?)
Marble
H. 2 m
Artemis, the Greek goddess of hunting, wears a tunic (chiton) pulled up around the knees to make it easier for her to run and a cloak (himation) passed over her left shoulder and tied around the waist. The “Diana of Versailles” is similar to other Roman copies found in Libya (Leptis Magna) and Turkey (Antalya) and is probably modelled on a Greek original from the 4th century BC.
The original statue, thought to have been the work of a master, has been attributed to the Athenian sculptor Leochares on account of striking simil arities between the “Diana of Versailles” and the “Belvedere Apollo” (Vatican Museum), traditionally attributed to Leochares
  
卢浮宫古希腊雕塑 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 
The Louvre statue was restored in 1602 by Barthélemy Prieur and in 1808 by Lange.
Gift from Pope Paul IV to Henri II (1556). The statue adorned the queen’s garden at the Ch?teau de Fontainebleau. In 1602, Henri IV had it transferred to the Louvre, where it was desplayed in the Salle des Antiquités (today the Salle des Caryatides). Under the reign of Louis XIV, it was transferred to Versailles, where it was displayed in the Grande Galerie. In 1798, it was returned to the Louvre, in compliance with a decree issued by the Convention.
Department of Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities Inventaire MR 152
(n° usuel Ma 589) 
 
卢浮宫古希腊雕塑 - 一夫 - 一夫的旅行博客
 
    
 
卢浮宫里这个时期的雕塑还不只这些,由于自己准备不充分,在那里也不知道谁是谁,应该看什么,什么最应该拍下来。庆幸的是,还碰上了一些不错的艺术品,拍了下来,并且在卢浮宫的网站上找到了相关的说明资料,但大部分是英语的,先放在这里,与各位分享。
  评论这张
 
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